The out of africa thesis maintains that

The account was summarily closed by the online provider.

Out Of Africa Theory DEBUNKED

Alex Kamau, 33, a computer scientist,grouped together with six friends to buy an account that allowed them to access the most lucrative essay-writing opportunities. Kenyatta University, where the vast majority of students work for essay factories on the side. Undeterred, they began to save up again. One of their group now acts as the syndicate's manager, ensuring that all the work is delivered on time.

Out of Africa

Regulation of the industry is non-existent, either in Africa or overseas. Two years ago, the Kenyan authorities vowed to crack down on essay writers and force them to pay tax. So far, however, no arrests have been made. In March, after pressure from the British Government, PayPal announced it would block payments to essay factories in an effort to clamp down on the cheats. But some entrepreneurs have already outwitted the measure. Back at his penthouse office in downtown Nairobi, Mr Karuri described how he launched Mambo Wallet, an alternative online payment platform that allows users to sidestep PayPal's restrictions.

Lord Mike Storey, a Liberal Democrat peer, has tabled a private members' bill to pressure the Government to make the advertising of such services illegal in Britain. Similar legislation has been introduced in New Zealand, Ireland and Australia, he said, and this has greatly reduced cheating at universities in those countries. Last year, he was joined by 46 university vice chancellors who wrote an open letter calling for cheating websites to be banned.

But the Government has said it wants to consider other approaches first. Lord Storey told MailOnline: 'Cheating is undermining the academic integrity of our universities brick by brick. It's a cancer. It's growing and growing, and eroding the worldwide reputation of our universities. Obviously this may not stop all the Kenyan sites completely, but it will be a step in the right direction.

A spokesman for the Department of Education said: 'Students who use essay writing services are cheating the system, and the Education Secretary has been clear that it is simply unethical for these companies to profit from a dishonest business which exploits young people. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline.

Kenya rules the world in this type of work. Share this article Share. It is all done online, like a computer game. Cheating is undermining the academic integrity of our universities brick by brick. Comments Share what you think.

The case against Conrad | Books | The Guardian

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And finally, the journey that Kurtz undergoes as he sinks down through the many levels of the self to a place where he discovers unlawful and repressed ambiguities of civilisation. In all three journeys, Conrad's restless narrative circles back on itself as though trapped in the complexity of the situation. The overarching question is, what happens when one group of people, supposedly more humane and civilised than another group, attempts to impose themselves upon their "inferiors"?

In such circumstances will there always be an individual who, removed from the shackles of "civilised" behaviour, feels compelled to push at the margins of conventional "morality"? What happens to this one individual who imagines himself to be released from the moral order of society and therefore free to behave as "savagely" or as "decently" as he deems fit?

How does this man respond to chaos?


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Conrad uses colonisation, and the trading intercourse that flourished in its wake, to explore these universal questions about man's capacity for evil. The end of European colonisation has not rendered Heart of Darkness any less relevant, for Conrad was interested in the making of a modern world in which colonisation was simply one facet. The uprootedness of people, and their often disquieting encounter with the "other", is a constant theme in his work, and particularly so in this novel.

Conrad's writing prepares us for a new world in which modern man has had to endure the psychic and physical pain of displacement, and all the concomitant confusion of watching imagined concrete standards become mutable. Modern descriptions of 20th-century famines, war and genocide all seem to be eerily prefigured by Conrad, and Heart of Darkness abounds with passages that seem terrifyingly contemporary in their descriptive accuracy.

One, with his chin propped on his knees, stared at nothing, in an intolerable and appalling manner: his brother phantom rested its forehead, as if overcome with a great weariness; and all about others were scattered in every pose of contorted collapse, as in some picture of a massacre or a pestilence.

As my car moved ever closer to Bard College, I constantly asked myself, was Conrad really a racist? If so, how did I miss this? Written in the wake of the Berlin Conference, which saw the continent of Africa carved into a "magnificent cake" and divided among European nations, Heart of Darkness offers its readers an insight into the "dark" world of Africa. The European world produced the narrator, produced Marlow, and certainly produced the half-French, half-English Kurtz "All Europe contributed to the making of Kurtz" , but set against the glittering "humanity" of Europe, Conrad presents us with a lateth-century view of a primitive African world that has produced very little, and is clearly doomed to irredeemable savagery.

This world picture would have troubled few of Conrad's original readers, for Conrad was merely providing them with the descriptive "evidence" of the bestial people and the fetid world that they "knew" lay beyond Europe.


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However, by the end of the 20th, and beginning of the 21st century, Conrad's readers are living in a decolonised - indeed postcolonial - world, and Conrad's brutal depiction of African humanity, so that he might provide a "savage" mirror into which the European might gaze and measure his own tenuous grip on civilisation, is now regarded by some, including Achebe, as deeply problematic.

But is it not ridiculous to demand of Conrad that he imagine an African humanity that is totally out of line with both the times in which he was living and the larger purpose of his novel? In his lecture, even Achebe wistfully concedes that the novel reflects "the dominant image of Africa in the western imagination". And the novel does assert European infamy, for there are countless examples throughout the text that point to Conrad's recognition of the illegitimacy of this trading mission and the brutalising effect it is having on the Africans.

However, the main focus of the novel is the Europeans, and the effect upon them of their encountering another, less "civilised", world. The novel proposes no programme for dismantling European racism or imperialistic exploitation, and as a reader I have never had any desire to confuse it with an equal opportunity pamphlet.

I have always believed that Conrad's only programme is doubt; in this case, doubt about the supremacy of European humanity, and the ability of this supposed humanity to maintain its imagined status beyond the high streets of Europe. However, as I pull my car up outside Achebe's house, I already sense I had better shore up my argument with something more resilient than this. For a moment Achebe has me fooled. He looks as though he has nodded off, but he has just been thinking.

This mild-mannered man looks up now and smiles. He returns to the subject we were talking about as though he has merely paused to draw breath.

Great artists manage to be bigger than their times. In the case of Conrad you can actually show that there were people at the same time as him, and before him, who were not racists with regard to Africa. Achebe says nothing for a moment, and so I continue. Surely they've all used Africa as a foil. When asked what he thought of Africans, Livingstone replied that he found them 'infuriating'.

In other words, they were just like everybody else. We both fall silent and I think back to Achebe's lecture. That Conrad had some "issues" with black people is beyond doubt. Achebe quotes Conrad who, when recalling his first encounter with a black person, remembers it thus:.

Breadcrumb

Of the nigger I used to dream for years afterwards. Conversely, when the year-old Conrad encounters his first Englishman in Europe, he calls him "my unforgettable Englishman" and describes him in the following manner:. The light of a headlong, exalted satisfaction with the world of men In passing he cast a glance of kindly curiosity and a friendly gleam of big, sound, shiny teeth However, despite Achebe's compelling "evidence", I am still finding it difficult to dismiss this man and his short novel.

Are we to throw all racists out of the canon? Are we, as Achebe suggests, to ignore the period in which novels are written and demand that the artist rise above the prejudices of his times? As much as I respect the man sitting before me, something does not ring true. We both agree that Conrad was not the originator of this disturbing image of Africa and Africans. And we both appear to agree that Conrad had the perception to see that this encounter with Africa exposed the fissures and instabilities in so-called European civilisation.

Further, we both agree that in order to expose European fragility, Conrad pandered to a certain stereotype of African barbarity that, at the time, was accepted as the norm. Finally, we both agree that this stereotype is still with us today. Achebe speaks quickly, as though a thought has suddenly struck him. And where is the proof that he is on my side? A few statements about it not being a very nice thing to exploit people who have flat noses?

This is his defence against imperial control?

Free Thought Lives

If so it is not enough. It is simply not enough. If you are going to be on my side what is required is a better argument. Ultimately you have to admit that Africans are people. You cannot diminish a people's humanity and defend them. I feel as though I am walking around an impregnable fortress. However, I am losing interest in the problem of breaching the ramparts and becoming more concerned with the aesthetics of its construction.

Graham Greene would be one because he knew his limitations. He didn't want to explain Africans to the world. He made limited claims and wasn't attempting to be too profound. After all, we can't be too profound about somebody whose history and language and culture is beyond our own. This identification with the other is what a great writer brings to the art of story-making.

We should welcome the rendering of our stories by others, because a visitor can sometimes see what the owner of the house has ignored. But they must visit with respect and not be concerned with the colour of skin, or the shape of nose, or the condition of the technology in the house. It is now my turn to stare out of the window at the six-foot snow drifts and the bare, rickety arms of the trees.

The light is beginning to fade and soon I will have to leave. I avert my eyes and turn to face my host.

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Inside the African essay factories producing essays for cheating UK and US students

What interests me is what I learn in Conrad about myself. To use me as a symbol may be bright or clever, but if it reduces my humanity by the smallest fraction I don't like it. But you cannot compromise my humanity in order that you explore your own ambiguity. I cannot accept that. My humanity is not to be debated, nor is it to be used simply to illustrate European problems. The realisation hits me with force. I am not an African. Were I an African I suspect I would feel the same way as my host. But I was raised in Europe, and although I have learned to reject the stereotypically reductive images of Africa and Africans, I am undeniably interested in the break-up of a European mind and the health of European civilisation.

I feel momentarily ashamed that I might have become caught up with this theme and subsequently overlooked how offensive this novel might be to a man such as Chinua Achebe and to millions of other Africans.


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  8. Achebe is right; to the African reader the price of Conrad's eloquent denunciation of colonisation is the recycling of racist notions of the "dark" continent and her people. Those of us who are not from Africa may be prepared to pay this price, but this price is far too high for Achebe.