Well, there are rules for that. Each of the style guides have their own rules when it comes to formatting titles, although many overlap. AP is one of the simpler styles to remember, as it doesn't use italics in composition titles at all. All formats except APA recommend that the following titles should be placed in quotation marks:. APA differs from other formats in that it doesn't use quotation marks or italics for titles of shorter works, such as essays that are in collections, lectures, or journal articles. These shorter works are simply formatted in regular type.
There are certain titles of things that all style guides agree should not be in italics or quotation marks. These titles should always be set in regular type:. Italicizing is easy to do on the computer, but not practical when you are hand writing something. In such cases, underlining is still used and is considered the same as writing a title in italics.
When formatting titles for the web, be aware that it is acceptable to go with whatever style is most visually appealing. Online formats tend to be less formal in style compared to print materials. Styling for the web is about attracting visitors to the site, so make a title stand out without looking clunky in order to get more attention. By practicing the above rules for using italics and quotation marks in titles, you'll find it becomes easier with practice.
If you're uncertain about what to use, ask yourself if the title of the work appears inside a larger body of work or if it can stand alone. If the title belongs inside a larger body of work, use quotation marks. If the title is for a body of work that stands alone, it should be in italics. Above all else, consistency is key.
What about when its a section, etc. For example, what would be correct if you were to type the following sentence? At the meeting, Policy Dress Code, was revised as the committee requested. My boss attorney always wants to put quotation marks around the titles of his pleadings when he references them in the text of the document.
Is this correct? Yes, this is correct.
How to Write Play Titles in a Paper
However, capitalizing the titles of pleadings may be considered enough in terms of setting them off from the rest of the text. I am writing an essay that includes the title of a film. Should this be in quotation marks and, if it appears at the end of the sentnce, should the period be inside the quotation marks? What if the title comes at the end of a sentence and is a question? Question mark inside or outside the quotation mark? If a question is within the quoted material, a question mark should be placed inside the quotation marks.
I stumbled over this site when looking for the rule on puntuation of titles. Now really, do you think the comma — or the period — is PART of the quote?!? Jane must not have been paying attention in her grammar classes. Also; since when does the use of computers change the rules of anything? They are merely tools of people.
People need to learn what has been established as correct, especially when they turn to self-proclaimed experts for advice. It can be very deflating to find out that a rule that we had once studied hard to learn is no longer valid. Languages evolve over time; rules governing grammar and punctuation change.
They go outside when they apply to the whole sentence. Hi Jane, I understand the rule says, and has said, as long as I can remember, that the comma or period go inside the quotation marks, but like the rather rude? I feel that only the material which is actually being quoted should go inside and this rule has always, always annoyed me. Any chance this will change over time? Some people certainly are annoyed that the rule for question marks with quotation marks follows logic, but commas and periods with quotation marks is just a rote rule.
Jane: I am percent in agreement with you. I am a strict grammarian — certainly not the best, but pretty good and take it seriously as a graduate of a major university Journalism school. We appreciate that you say you are in agreement with us, but you might want to review the rules again, because some of your statements reveal beliefs that are incorrect.
You could start with the parentheses in your email to us the period should be outside, not inside. Current style manuals recommend italicizing book titles and magazine names and using quotation marks around articles and chapters. Thank you for your insight Jane. Grammar Ericson, I have never seen a period placed after quotation marks nor have I ever seen a semicolon follow the word also. Yes, both sentences are punctuated incorrectly but there is another error as well.
According to The Chicago Manual of Style 8. A single episode in a television or radio series is set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks.
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Using quotation marks to delineate the two words in question in the second sentence is acceptable. Do manuals and handbooks go by this rule as well? The name of the manual is Drainage Design Manual. What if I wanted to write about a specific volume and mention a specific table? How would it look like within the text? If it is a published manual or handbook, it should go by the same rule. The title is written Drainage Design Manual.
If the specific volume or table has a title, the title is enclosed in quotation marks. If it has a number, it would be referred to as vol. Should the section title, Getting Started, be in ital or quotation marks? Should Part One and Part Two be in ital? Thanks for this, it helped a lot. Just want to know if this sentence is grammatically incorrect. And also if the book is in quotation marks or italics. Since the book was written in the past, we recommend using was written.
Book titles are italicized. Is this assumption correct? The Chicago Manual of Style recommends that general titles of websites are written without quotation marks or italics. Titled sections, pages, or special features on a website should be placed in quotation marks. Please note that not all style manuals follow the same rules. Examples: Overstock. Song titles and lyrics are both enclosed in quotes. AP Stylebook recommends slashes at the end of each line of lyrics and capitalization of the word starting each line.
If you are wanting to write this using the convention for song lyrics, there should be a space after the first slash to separate it from the next line of lyrics. The slash after smiles would indicate that another line of lyrics follows. Also, every time is two words:. How would one write a store name, then? The names of punctuation marks are not proper nouns and do not require capitalization. Also, Rule 1 of Commas recommends using commas to separate words and word groups with a series of three or more.
I have created a new rule for the use of Quotation Marks. I believe it would be appropriate for you to incorporate this rule in your publications. With the advent of computers, and their lack of flexibility regarding data entry, quotation mark rules must allow for all writing punctuation to remain outside the quotation marks. The rule that the period should be inside the quotes was probably created because it looked better on the written page, but it is not true to the spirit of a quote.
When using computers, the quotation would be frequently rendered inaccurate if the punctuation is included inside the quotes. I hope you will incorporate my new rule in your grammar documentation, and encourage others to do the same. The Chicago Manual of Style does agree with your recommendation if quotation marks must be used. Its rule 7. A single treatment may be applied across different types of elements. In general, avoid quotation marks lest they be interpreted as part of the element they enclose. If quotation marks must be used, any punctuation that is not part of the quoted expression should appear outside the quotation marks.
Normally, we would italicize the name of the play, but since it is included within a book title which should also be italicized , how does one differentiate the two? I am the author of a book that includes affirmations. These are not quoted from another source. At the beginning of each chapter, I 1 initially state the affirmations, and 2 often insert the affirmations throughout the book for emphasis. How are quotations handled in this instance? Should the period be placed inside the quote, or outside? Would italics be in order for either instance?
Quotation marks should be used in direct quotations to surround the exact words of a speaker or writer, or to surround titles of articles, chapters, and other shorter works. Regarding the use of italics, titles of books, journals, plays, and other freestanding works are italicized. Overused, italics quickly lose their force. Seldom should as much as a sentence be italicized for emphasis, and never a whole passage.
I simply cannot wrap my senses around placing the end-of sentence punctuation within a quote, if the quote appears at the end of the sentence. What do you do, if you make an exclamatory sentence that ends with a quoted question? In my letter, should I have placed the exclamation marks within the quotation marks, right after the question mark? The placement of question marks with quotation marks follows logic as opposed to periods, which always go inside the quotation marks in American English.
The question Will you marry me? Only one form of punctuation is used at the end of a sentence. The first word in a complete quotation should be capitalized, even in midsentence. A comma is used to introduce a direct quotation. Also, use commas to set off the name, nickname, term of endearment, or title of a person directly addressed. I am trying to start a business. I am writing an employees manual that will only be distributed in soft copy, and it will be around pages long.
Is the title, Drivers Guide, grammatically acceptable?
Brief Overview of Punctuation
Specifically, does it need an apostrophe? The title of your handbook should be italicized. Regarding the apostrophe, the Chicago Manual of Style 7. About titles of books and quotation marks, what is the style for famous works such as the I Ching, Analects of Confucius, Baghavad Gita, and so on?. Names of manuscript collections take no quotation marks. When writing the title of a book with a subtitle on the same line and the subtitle begins with an article a, the, an, etc , is the article capitalized?
A space follows the colon. The subtitle, like the title, always begins with a capital letter. Thanks so much for all of the great detail here! What about the title of a monthly newsletter? When I refer to the newsletter on my website or in other articles, I have been using italics for the title. If the newsletter is going to contain more than one article and it will be broken down in article-like sections, you should italicize the title. Also italicized? The names of ballets and modern dance works are printed in italics, such as Swan Lake. I am working on revisions to the Facilities Use Policy for my church and would like to know if this title should be italicized, in quotes, or capitalized when referenced in the text of the policy or elsewhere.
Titles of works | The Punctuation Guide
In the policy I also refer to other documents, e. What about the different sections of the policy? Legal documents and forms should not have quotation marks or italics but should be capitalized. In writing a letter to patients and reference the Liver Transplant Waitng List. Should this be capitalized? How do I capitalize the title of a book.
Capitalize other words within titles, including the short verb forms Is, Are, and Be. Since the word it is a pronoun, capitalize that as well. Also, our blog Titles of Books, Plays, Articles, etc. What about in a novel, a title as part of the dialogue? Do you italicize the name of a book? Yes, the title is italicized. What if the name of a book is a part of my own book report title? Will I need to italicize the name of the book in my title? Thanks for any help. How should I construct a title for a event shown in a picture. I want to convey the time period, locally, state, and event name. There are no punctuation rules that specifically relate to titles.
It is used for periods of time when you might otherwise use to. Since your question is not clearly stated, I will take a guess and answer it the best we can. The answer depends on what kind of program it is. Plays and television programs are italicized. If it is a class or course of study, it should not be underlined or italicized, but it should be capitalized. Brochures or pamphlets should be treated like book titles and italicized.
Since it is a title, it should be capitalized. If this is a meeting or conference, it should be enclosed in quotation marks. If not, an article belongs in quotation marks. If it is a quotation, use single quotation marks around the title of the article. Italics are not used for the title of an article in either case. If you are writing a book with a question as the title, do you punctuate title? For instance, if the book is titled Who is George Washington by John Doe, on the title page, would it be correct to write:.
Thank you for your help! Simile used in different situation has different effect. In other words, am I right if I write like this? Your first sentence is not grammatically correct. It could be written Similes used in different situations have different effects. Your second sentence is incomplete as written. Your last sentence is correct as written. Similes used in different situations have different effects.
We assume you will be adding at least one more simile in order to illustrate different situations and effects. Thanks for your advice. Your advice is really useful. I think I will consult your website another time. Thanks again. The names of websites are not placed in quotation marks or italics. You may use italics and quotes throughout an article as outlined in our blog Titles of Books, Plays, Articles, etc. Regarding other words, the answer is very much up to the author. For a good example of how an author chose a mixture of quotation marks and italics, see our blog Word Nerds: Verbal custodians trapped in a time warp.
Whether you continue to italicize a word or not depends on the context. If you continue to use the word in the same context, you should continue to place it in italics.
There is no hard and fast answer to this. I have a title for an academic thesis with a foreign term right in the middle of it. Everything will be in caps. WHat to do about the foreign terms, italics or not? We do not know why your title would be in all caps, but in regard to foreign terms The Chicago Manual of Style 7. If a foreign word becomes familiar through repeated use throughout a work, it need be italicized only on its first occurrence. If it appears only rarely, however, italics may be retained. In American English, the title of an article is enclosed in quotation marks.
For example:. If the chapter has a title at the beginning, you may put it in quotation marks or italicize it, but your use of single quotation marks is incorrect. So glad I just discovered your blog. In case it matters, I am citing according to the Bluebook for legal citation. The Chicago Manual of Style recommends italicizing the names of newspapers. When ending a sentence with quotation marks around one word, is the period inside the quotation mark?
In American English the period and the comma always go within the quotation marks. The dash, the semicolon, the question mark and the exclamation point go within the quotation marks when they apply to the quoted matter only. Your sentences are punctuated correctly. Is it proper to put thoughts in italics or quotation marks?
Direct internal dialogue can either be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks.
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Our blog Internal Dialogue: Italics or Quotes? OR Please let this child graduate , she contemplates. Should a title of a book be italicized when it is following a quoted paragraph from the book, for the purpose of introducing an article? In other words this is not running text nor is it a quotation set off within the text; rather, it appears as an extract before the beginning of the article.
None of which are currently italicized. Thanks for your help! Since it is not running text, you may wish to treat your paragraph the way you would an epigraph. The following are two examples of epigraphs from The Chicago Manual of Style:. Oh, what a tangled web we weave, When first we practice to deceive! It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice. R and grammar are incorrect and rude.
Using Italics and Quotation Marks in Titles
Please folks, if you have not yet taken college level English to learn to argue or even a high school debate class, please do so. I have always placed the punctuation inside the quotation marks; any other application looks awkward to me. Thank you all very much. I enjoy the discussion. You are welcome.
Although we certainly appreciate our readers visiting our Facebook page, we do not make it a requirement. I have been going through the various posts looking for the answer to my question, but alas, have not found it. Reports can follow different formats, such as MLA or Chicago style. It is important to find out which format is required for the report you are doing. For example, in MLA format, the title of a website is italicized when you are citing it. Chicago Manual of Style says no italics. They both agree on putting a website article in quotation marks.
Other information may also be required. Now that we have digital means of adapting language, it is beneficial to evolve it more logically. There is no need for typesetter rules, nor any other conventions that were a result of technological limitations, or stylings. I personally, and logically use the following method: punctuation within the quotation marks only when the punctuation belongs to the quoted text, and punctuation outside of the quote when it belongs to the non-quoted text.
The same logic that is used with parenthesis. You will be at home in countries that follow British English rules. American English, however, still requires that periods and commas always go inside the closing quotation mark. Thank you for this wonderful site and all of your great work! Speaking as a paranoid grammar geek, it is comforting to have a place to which one can turn for insight and affirmation. Please know that you provide an invaluable service, regardless of what some rather snarky readers might post!
We do not give recommendations for titles of books. However, we do advise that you read and study our rules of capitalization and punctuation. When you do decide on a title, italicize it. Does the length of a stageplay affect how it is formatted in text? In specific, when one is referring to a one-act play, should it be italicized or placed in quotes in the same way that a longer stageplay would be? Thank you. When using punctuation after an italicized title, am I correct in NOT italicizing the punctuation? Did you enjoy the book Sheila the Great? Italics do not include punctuation marks next to the words being italicized unless those punctuation marks are part of the actual title.
Am I correct in thinking that periods are not used in titles if the title is just a sentence fragment? There may be options for how the title may be written, but since you did not provide an example of what you are talking about, we are unable to say for sure. Why do newspapers put movie and book titles in quotes? Is this different for newswriting? As our blog states, most newspapers follow The Associated Press Stylebook , which has its own rules because italics cannot be sent through AP computers. In addition to catalogs, this category includes almanacs, directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, gazetteers, handbooks and similar publications.
Do not use quotation marks around such software titles as WordPerfect or Windows. Those packets that kids get in school and all. Rules for titles of packets of information are not specifically mentioned by the style guides. Here are two examples:. They needed something outside of them to hold them in place. Since the blocks for quotation marks were full height, they could do the job. Oh, now I see someone has already provided a variation of my typesetting origin for end punctuation of quotations. Sorry for the redundancy.
Frankly, I think size makes more sense than fragility though. When referring to parts of a work, you do not need to use any special punctuation unless the part has a title. If it has a title, use quotation marks. Please refer to Chapter 6 for more information. You first have to determine what kind of title it is. Italicize titles of books, movies, plays, TV shows, newspapers, magazines, websites, music albums, operas, musical theater, paintings, sculptures, and other works of art.
Italics are also widely used with names of ships, trains, and planes. Use quotation marks for titles of articles, chapters, poems, song titles, and other shorter works. How would you write a name of an event that is not a familiar event to the reader? If the event sounds straightforward and generic, capitals would seem sufficient: National Speakers Forum. Is it within the rules of AP Style to italicize the name of a band? Or is the name simply capitalized? For example, one quote reads:. The above quote is actually being paraphrased and is from a book. Is there some way to imply the author relationship to the remark using quotation marks and still indicate it is paraphrased?
Is the book title italicized or underlined? Quotation marks are not used for paraphrased quotes. A book title is italicized. Which of the following is correct? Robert Frost — poet. In American English, periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks see Rule 3a of Quotation Marks. Semicolons should not be used in your final example, since the titles in your series do not contain commas see Rule 3 of Semicolons.
Titles appearing within an italicized passage may be enclosed in quotation marks or written in roman type. Here goes. Does a theme for a church program go in quotation marks? Our new theme, The Anatomy of Discipleship, looks naked without quotation marks. Therefore, you could use quotation marks or maybe italics in a written announcement.
see url Unless the affirmation is a direct quote, direct internal dialogue, or a title, there is no rule prescribing the use of quotation marks. The affirmation would go in quotes if it is being attributed to a specific speaker. Can I make a phrase stated by someone a title? And how do I capitalize it? We think you forgot the word star at the end of your quote. Could you tell me why does The New Yorker sets in roman and encloses in quotation marks the title of a book called Handbook of Economic Inequality here?
It seems that the editors of The New Yorker favor placing book titles in quotation marks rather than italics as recommended in our blog. Otherwise, they appear to be consistent with our recommendations to place the names of journals in italics and articles and reports in quotation marks. We are not expert in the subject matter of the article, but the Luxembourg Income Study appears to have been ongoing since Since they were not quoting any one specific book or report from the study, it was not placed in either quotation marks or italics.
Thank you so much for your kind and detailed reply! The New Yorker does have a particular house style, it is known for it, in fact, but I believe that the reason they put book titles in quotation is The Associated Press Stylebook , and not some preference invented by themselves. A bit strange. The New Yorker marches to the beat of its own drummer. It is fruitless to second-guess its long-standing policies. When using AP Style Citations for books and you cannot italicize, does one use an underscore on the front and back ends of a title or is there another way of idetifying italics?
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I presume that it gets typeset like this, inside quotation marks? How are translations properly typeset? Quotation marks need not be repeated for the parenthetical translation or parenthetical original, as the case may be ; any internal quotation marks, however, should be included as in the second example. I have a thorny question related to listing titles and names in a series. Which would be more desirable, when considering punctuation: 1.
I prefer 2 as it treats each title and associated name as a unit, followed by a colon indicating another list to follow. What do you think? We recommend the following, which is close to your second option. Note our use of semicolons and our lowercasing of job descriptions. What happens with the names of programs and offers, such as for example of particular programs of a philharmonic orchestra, e. The Modern Beethoven, or tourist-agency offers such as Cities of Europe? Quotation marks, italics, or none of those? Kern Holoman, Writing about Music.
I live in South Africa and prefer the comma after the quotation mark because it is not part of the quotation. Our blog Quotations Within Quotations provides more information on the topic of quotations within quotations. Your sentence does not seem to be an example of a quotation within a quotation. The title of the book is A Tale of Two Cities. We recommend writing your quote as follows:. For articles that contain punctuation marks e. How would that be quoted within a sentence.
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How do I put a reference to the Mayflower Compact in my essay? I am trying to say It began in with the Mayflower Compact and ended in …. The formal name of a document should be capitalized, however it is not italicized or set in quotation marks. You have written it correctly. As we state in the post, titles of books are italicized. Underlining generally substitutes for italics in a handwritten work.
If the work is not handwritten, we do not recommend underlining. Which is correct or better to use in these examples? I, myself came from a much different set of rules including proper grammar and speech, so it irritates me when they respond in such a manner. In the process; unless someone has a rather important job; many have all but forgotten the benefits of speaking or writing well. We need to bring that back; even if it means we cross-reference the answer to our questions using more than just one source. Where does the comma go? The last one should go inside the quotation marks.
The title of a book at the end of a sentence. We recommend that book titles be italicized. If you must use quotation marks, the exclamation point goes outside the quotation marks unless the exclamation point is actually part of the title. What about references to both a chapter number and its title in text, what would correct punctuation and use of quotation marks be?
What about thesis titles in italics placed after colons? Can you tell me what is the correct solution? The above is an article heading. Do I need to italicize or use quotations around the name of the play in the article heading? As the post states, titles of plays are usually italicized. The exception is if you are required to follow AP Style.
The Associated Press Stylebook does not use italics. As the post states, titles of books are italicized. We do not recommend underlining or using boldface. According to a kidshealth. That looks fine to us. However, if you were required to follow a specific format, you should refer to that specific style guide. For example, MLA format is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities, Associated Press style provides guidelines for news writing, and APA style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
Each format has different rules. I recently composed an email for a client. Should it be since it is a title and might even be proprietary? Names of websites are not generally italicized or enclosed in quotation marks, because they are usually made into Internet links that result in the names standing out. The style manuals do not address online events specifically; however, a substantive title given to a single meeting, conference, speech, or discussion is usually enclosed in quotation marks in formal prose.
If I am writing am including a previously published article in my newsletter, how do I correctly say this. As of now I have an italicized sentence at the top of the article that mentions it was published in the such and such journal. If that sentence is already italicized, how would I correctly site the title of the publication? We would prefer to see specifically what you are working with to provide you with clear direction.
Pick a policy and be consistent. However, some newspaper editors capitalize their headlines and article titles and some capitalize only the first letter. This is a very interesting thread, and as has already been pointed out, the rules in the UK and in the US are different. I know that those who disagree with my statement here will likely disagree, but as I hold a PhD in English with a focus in American literature, and am currently the content editor of a fairly good sized company about employees located on the West Coast of the US, I can assure everyone that in the USA the rule — as has been pointed out repeatedly — is that the comma goes INSIDE the quotation marks, not outside.
Does the period at the end of a sentence also always In the U. Our Rule 13c. Wich of the following is correct and why? I need some help on my essay. And does it make sense? Yes, you may refer to the title of the article in mid-sentence. Your essay contains a number of grammatical errors that should be corrected. If chapter titles are set in roman, would a name e. Example of chapter title: Sinking of the Titanic.
Since appositives are not the focus of this blog post, we have not indicated the context in which these sentences existed. Either method is acceptable. I want to know what to do in a phone text where one can neither underline nor italicize a written work. I have been using apostrophes or single quotation marks to identify a work.
Recently, I have noticed that online articles will use single quotation marks instead of italics. People are forgetting how grammar works. Our rules and guidelines apply to formal writing. In practice, we understand that texting is highly informal. How do you punctuate a title that has a question mark in it and the title comes at the end of a question?
Which one is correct? Or, would the sentence still end in only one question mark? If the title at the end of the sentence ends in a question mark, there is no need to follow it with another question mark. How can I find out if there is already a book of that name? I am wondering if I should use quotation marks or italics when a character is thinking about — in their head — a conversation they had with another such as in the past.
For instance, I have a character who is thinking internally about a time when she was a child. She asked her mother a question. I have the exact words to this past dialogue written using italics. It is an internal thought. An internal dialogue from the past. You may use italics or quotation marks for conversations conducted in internal dialogue. Differentiate the speakers just as you might for standard dialogue by placing them on separate lines or by attribution.
I remember asking my mother, What will I be when I grow up? Whatever you want to be , she said. For more information, see our post Internal Dialogue: Italics or Quotes? Please ensure that your question or comment relates to the topic of the blog post. Unrelated comments may be deleted. If necessary, use the "Search" box on the right side of the page to find a post closely related to your question or comment.